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ECET 380: Project Management

Library & online resources for Entertainment Technology


3 Types of Citations

In this class, 3 types of citations are required.

1. Citation reference

In the annotated bibliography, literature review, and report, full references are required.

  • In the annotated bibliography, you do not need to number, just list references in alphabetical order (a summary of the resource after each reference).
  • In the literature review and report, citations and corresponding references, are in numerical order.

Literature review example of in-text citation:
The two basic systems of shared-memory and distributed-processing could offer increased computational power. The INMOS T800 transputer hardware platform and the Express "operating system" were chosen. The T800 could support a variety of network architecture due to a set of four bidirectional channels. The Express was a transparent parallel operating system with a set of tools and utilities for developing parallel programs [1].

Reference list:
[1]HM Chen and FC Berry, "Parallel Load-Flow Algorithm Using a Decomposition Method for Space-Based Power Systems," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 29, no. 3, pp.1024-1030, 1993.

2. Report Citations

Within the reports, any information gathered to inform decisions needs to be cited. This would include citing within the requirements matrix and possibly within the problem statement and concept map. Just like the literature review, citations are in numerical order. If it's unclear where to cite, please ask. Here's an example of a citation in the requirements matrix.

Requirements matrix:
Req. #8: Light Color: Lights must be able to produce color with the RGB range.
Rationale: The lighting needs to produce various colors that create various moods [2].

Reference list:
[2] Audio Academy, "The Beauty and Quirks of Theatre Lighting," Audio Trends & Gear, Jul. 13, 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Oct. 23, 2021].

3. Image Citations

Images in Gate presentations:  Images are a great way to help the audience better understand components of your project. Best case scenario, you can take your own photos, so you don't need to worry about citing the creator of the image. But if you use images from the internet, check out this Libguide for images you can use with the creator's permission and proper attribution. Below are examples of how to cite images in your visual presentations.

Example 1: The website offers an image citation.
Lightbulb plugging itself into the wall
Image by Colin Behrens from Pixabay

Image 2: You add your own citation.
Electric pad
Image taken from>


Image of Wiring

Image citations in written reports
The below is adapted from the Reg Erhardt Library Libguide
The reference for an image (labeled as Figure) in a written report goes under the image. Use the word "Figure", a number, and a title. Follow this with "Source" and the citation number in brackets. If you adapted the image, begin the reference with "Adapted from" followed by the citation number in brackets. The full citation associated with the number is in the reference list.


Lightweight Mobility Scooter, Source:  Adapted from [3]
Figure 1: Lightweight Mobility Scooter
Source: Adapted from [3]


  • Figures include graphs, diagrams, images, drawings, schematics, maps, etc.
  • The full citation is based on the format from which you are taking the image. The image above is from a website. If it was a book, you would cite in IEEE book format.
    • [3] T. Andrianarivo, "Disabled and Here," [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Feb. 03, 2021].
  • When referring to the figure in your paper, place the citation number in brackets directly after its mention in the text, use the following notation, including the full details of the source in the reference list.
    • Figure… as illustrated in [3, Fig. 1
  • If you have provided your own image, there will be no reference.