Volume 15, #1 Spring/Summer 2009
From the Chair: Every spring I look forward to the Notable Government Documents List published by Library Journal and selected by an ALA GODORT Committee. The 2008 list includes documents from federal, state, and international agencies. Federal documents highlight histories of various agencies including the FBI, the U.S. Army Nurse Corps during the WWI era, and a dcoument entitled The Agency and the Hill: CIA's Relationship with Congress, 1946-2004 which is very timely.
International documents of interest include a couple of atlases: Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment and Atlas of Global Development and a really wonderful resource, Vital Water Graphics: An Overview of the State of the World's Fresh and Marine Waters. Since my institution is not a depository for any international organization, I depend on this list to help me with collection development as I purchase many of the documents listed.
But every year I seem to be disappointed. As I read through the state documents chosen as the year's best, I did not find any Indiana state documents. Again. In fact, in the eleven years I've been a documents librarian, I don't recall ever seeing an Indiana document on the list. Correct me if I'm mistaken. If not, I'll you'll join me in searching for Indiana documents that we can nominate for next year's consideration. The material can be in print, CD, video, Web site, or other formats and can be nominated from an online form.
I hope our INDIGO membership makes a concerted effort to watch for high quality Indiana state agency publications so Indiana will be recognized in the 2009 list. Happy hunting! (Becky Byrum)
Cataloging Digital Documents Collections: In an environment of limited funds, improved search engines, and an eDocuments explosion, what are the challenges and prospects for cataloging digital documents? Should libraries depend on retrieval of open access metadata of digital documents collections via the Inernet or access via online catalog bibliographic records? Should metadata or MARC 21 cataloging be used for collections? What is cataloging's role in providing permanent public access to all types of government information? Should digital documents be provided on the web for no fee access whether the digital product was provided by the government entity or other institutions? Ultimately, how should the bibliographic information be provided for these digital docuemnts, whether digitized or born digital? Should we rely on vendors to supply cataloging or metadata records for these collections? It is impossible to provide answers to even some of these questions. Answers appear to be on a project by project basis. However, here are a few thoughts on this subject from a documents cataloger.
In this restricted financial environment, it is critical for libraries to carefully consider our digital documents cataloging policy with an integrated approach internal and external to the library. Internally, cataloging policy should be coordinated and regularly reviewed with collection development policy. What digigal documents should be prioritized for cataloging: disappearing documents at risk because of content, content of interest to library mission, documents digitized by our own institutions, or content crtical for library users? If selected, do our libraries have the resources to catalog these documents or are vendor records available to purchase and load in our online catalogs? Even if our institutions do not catalog digital documents, we should consider what staff time can be devoted to working on bibliographic information for federal digital documents. Besides cataloging, staff may correct bibliographic records in their library's online catalog. They may correct SuDoc classification in records, PURLs for improved online user access, or other bibliographic problems hindering access. Non cataloger staff may work with GPO or other cataloging agencies to improve this information. For example, they may request GPO cataloging by using GPO's Lost Docs Reporting Form for identifying fugitive documents, or use GPO Help reporting problems with cataloging, classification, and PURLs. Finally, all staff may participate in some aspect of collaborative cataloging for state and local documents, such as planning and implementing.
We need to examine our cataloging policies for digital collections. What standard will be used and how will individual records be accessed? If metadata is provided, the best is via rich, shareable metadata. MARC 21 cataloging is one form of metadata for bibliographic resources that we are most familiar with. Cataloging may be different depending on whether the resources is a digital reproduction or born digital. The U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) has recently published Cataloging Digital Reproductions. These procedures for cataloging digital reproductions of tangible documents for GPO and GPO partners were developed following a cataloging community-wide review. GPO Cataloging Guidelines provide MARC cataloging procedures and standards for digital documents such as websites and born digital resources. However, not all digitization projects and cataloging agencies have the resources to follow these guidelines or other standards when providing eDocuments metadata and cataloging. In addition, state and local governments may or may not have cataloging digital documents guidelines.
Identifying and preserving these resources are a higher priority than cataloging. While GPO cataloging policies and standards are high quality, not all digital federal documents are cataloged and distributed by the FDLP or cataloged by federal agencies. Even if these resources are distributed, the documents themselves may wait years for a cataloging record, or material cataloged by a federal agency may not get the GPO provided SuDoc classification and PURL.
There is a pressing need in Indiana to identify and catalog state eDocs. Do we need a collaborative project to identify, preserve, and catalog them? We have the Indiana State Library's Indiana Memory which is a collaboration of digital projects of state and local government information provided by Indiana libraries, museums, archives, and related cultural organizations. Indiana Memory enables web access to Indiana's cultural and historical heritage via institutionally provided metadata from content hosting institutions. In an Indiana Library Association Annual Conference feedback session, attendees supported MARC 21 cataloging of digital content of all of these resources, for the project themselves, and for individual resources. This effort would be an enormous undertaking. It may be possible to require stricter standards for metadata for the projects. For example, the state could require shareable, open access, and harvestable metadata. Whether this is possible, cataloging Indiana Memory resources would take collaboration and financial resources. Imagine the resources needed to catalog all Indiana state and local documents!
However, we proceed to address cataloging digital documents, providing access to them depends on bibliographic data. The April 2009 Association of Research Libraries white paper Strategic Directions for the Federal Depository Library Program discusses the importance of good cataloging records for digital collections and digital legacy collections.
"For access to these digital resources to be most effective, enhanced discovery will be necesary. These is no clear sensse of how many pre-1976 federal documents require cataloging records. Over 30 FDLs and GPO are cataloging 2.2 million pre-1976 depository materials. This is a multi-year and costly undertaking-approximately five dollars per record. Until an overarching schema for access is developed, holdings for these resources cannot easily be identified nor made available for digitization or coordinated storage. GPO working with FDLs, needs to develop a master plan for access that provides a clearer understanding of the universe of records that still require processing. The plan should also detail cooperative action for cataloging and/or machine-based mechanisms for providing acces. The recent GPO report "Regional Depository Libraries in the 21st Century: A Preliminary Assessment," includes a recommendation that GPO support "continued appropriations for GPO's initiative to create machine readable bibliographic records for the tangible collection of pre-1976 depository publications to ensure its completion in a timelier manner." This is a critically important component of ensuring effective access to the historic legacy collections. (p. 6).
In its 2008 report Future Directions for the Federal Depository Library Program, ARL calls GPO's digitization of its pre-1976 shelflist documents "a helpful step. but not sufficient" and calls for a new framework for the FDLP. The importance of cataloging to access digital collections is highlighted in the 2008 report:
"To be successful, the new framework requires a coherent means to access the legacy collections and digital depository resources. In some respects, accessing legacy collections still remains difficult due to separate classificaiton systems, cataloging issues and oftentimes, lack of integration with library expertise and other resources." (p. 3).
ARL also discusses the need in this report for a collaborative schema for access to digital collections, stating that we must:
"Develop a master plan for access which assesses cooperative action for cataloging as well as machine-based mechanisms for providing access. Sustainability of access will require an economic model that distributes the burden/costs of such cataloging and or systems development." (p.4).
Digitization projects are multiplying for documents and we must develop a master plan for access! Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) university libraries recently announced a new documents digital project. CIC will partner with Google to digitize a comprehensive collection of approximately 1-1.5 million volumes. CIC Library Directors have charged the CIC Committee on Federal Documents Digitization with responsibility to plan this initiative. The Steering Committee has a difficult task ahead of them. We hope that high cataloging and open-access standards became paort of thie CIC-Google Government Documents Project, as the Committee addresses questions of equal concern: digitization standards, copyright, delivery, metadata standards, preservation, and many others. We also hope that the project uses MARC 21 cataloging, and follows GPO cataloging guidelines. It is also important that the Project links the reproductions to existing bibliographic records via PURLs and links to GPO's shelf list records for pre-1976 documents via some yet unknown mechanism.
How much should libraries depend on these projects and limit their government doucments collection development and cataloging policies? There is no one good answer. Each library must consider their resources and user needs. One thing that libraries can do is address how much of their financial resources they should devote to cataloging digital documents. They can also become aware that it requires resources and is not an area which should be discounted or ignored. Not all government information is available online!
Yet, how can libraries keep up with the explosion of digital documents made freely available via the Web? We can inform ourselves and our libraries by attending meetings hosted by INDIGO and state agencies such as the Indiana State Library. We can also advocate for cataloging digital documents with rich metadata such as MARC 21 or other schema, and we can advocate for open access and harvesting of metadata records. We can't create all of these cataloging records ourselves, but we can collaborate with other institutions with knowledge, planning, or cataloging resources to provide the best bibliographic information for digital documents. We can also rely on, inform, and even request vendor records for digital documents. Finally, we need more research, investigation, and reporting on cataloging standards and availability of metadata and MARC 21 records for federal, state, and local online government information. (ANDREA MORRISON)
Purdue University Library News: Bert Chapman has been promoted to Professor of Library Science and is currently editing his forthcoming book Military Doctrine: A Reference Handbook which will be published by Praeger Security International this fall. The Libraries opened its new Virginia Kelley Karnes Archives and Special Collections Research Center which has a variety of digitized resources on Purdue history including materials on Amelia Earhart, the Old Oaken Bucket football game, George Winter, and many other topics. We have just finished uploading MARC records to our OPAC for the 1st-25th Congresses for LexisNexis U.S. Congressional Serial Set and these are great resources for U.S. History students and scholars. The course instruction section of the Government Documents Dept. website has been expanded to cover library research guides for courses in topics as varied as aviation technology, consumer science and retailing, history, and political science. We continue retrospective cataloging of depository microfiche for agencies we're responsible for under the Indiana Government Document Light Archive such as the EPA. We are also weeding many uncataloged HE publications from the mid-1970s to early 1990s.
The Libraries is going through a significant journals cancellation project this spring and information on it can be found here. Book purchasing will be cut back some what as well. We anticipate some level of participation in the CIC/Hathi Trust/Google government documents digitization program but our exact involvement is yet to be determined. Economic difficulties have also cut into Libraries student worker spending and the Documents Department will lose its student worker for the summer. There are also various reorganizational changes underway include placing the Management and Economics Library, Humanities, Social Science, and Education (HSSE) Library, and Undergraduate Library into a single division under the leadership of one librarian. (Bert Chapman).
Census 2010 Preparation Getting into Gear: You and your patrons may soon notice U.S. Census workers in your neighborhood, sporting identification badges, starting now and throughout the year. Workers have begun canvassing addresses to make sure no one goes uncounted. On April 1, 2010, the Census Bureau begins counting the nation. Performing an accurate population count is very important. Information collected during the decennial census is used to: "distribute congressional seats to states, to make decisions about what community services to provide, and to distribute $300 billion in federal funds to local, state, and tribal governments each year," according to the Census Bureau's Census 2010 website. One of the main differences for Census 2010 is that there will be no long form to fill out. Everyone will fill out the shame short form which takes a convenient 10 minutes to complete. For more information, visit Indiana's Census 2010 website for more on Why the Census Matters and read the March 30 Indianapolis Star article Census Wants to Count on You. (Katie Springer)
Natural Resources Conservation Service: The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) was established in 1935 as the Soil Conservation Service. NRCS mission responsibilities include helping private landowners conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources. This is carried out through various regional and state offices including Indiana. NRCS is best known to us for its county soil surveys located in the A 57.38 section of our collections. These surveys feature exhaustive coverage and analysis of soil condictions in U.S. counties and Louisiana parishes. They also feature maps, photographs, and even human and natural history information about these counties. Here is a list of all printed soil surveys. NRCS materials are useful for studying topics as varied as climate change, crop rotation, land use, natural conservation best practices, organic farming, plants, soil erosion, and water. (Bert Chapman).
National Defense Intelligence College: National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) is part of the Defense Intelligence Agency. It has an enrollment of over 700 students from all armed service branches and federal civilian agencies who hold top secret security clearances. NDIC was established within the Defense Dept. (DOD) in 1962 and DOD Instruction 3305.01 in December 2006 describes its missions as preparing intelligence community and combatant command intelligence personnel to identify and effectively integrate foreign, military, and domestic intelligence to defend the U.S. homeland and international interests; place high pririty on education and research to meet (DOD) peace and wartime intelligence needs; and enhance the competence of intelligence professionals through educational progams and granting intelligence undergraduate and graduate degrees.
A noteworthy component of NDIC's website are the reports produced by the National Defense Intelligence College Press on various intelligence issues. Print versions of many of these publications can be found in the D 5.202 SuDoc range. Examples of these publications include Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas (2004),Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis (2006) Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis (2007), and A Muslim Archipelago: Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia (2007). (Bert Chapman)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is located in Golden, CO and is an Energy Dept. agency whose responsibility is serving as the primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. It was established in 1977 as the Solar Energy Research Institute and became NREL in 1991. The laboratory's website provides information resources in the following four categories: science and technology, technology transfer, applying technologies, and learning about renewables. Information is provided about ongoing laboratory research emphases including fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, alternative fuels such as electricity, wind power, and descriptions of NREL collaborative activities with other U.S. Government agencies, foreign governments, and state and local governments. Numerous publications ranging from factsheets to substantive research reports are available on NREL's website with representative samples including Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics (2000), Advancing Clean Energy Use in Mexico (2005), Geothermal: The Energy Under Our Feet (2007), 20% Wind Energy by 2030 (2008), Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Indiana (2008), and Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential From Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power (2009). NREL resources can help you save money by building or remodeling your residences and businesses to make them more energy efficient. As many of you may know Benton County, Indiana has a number of wind turbines and you can find information and pictures of these turbines, plus YouTube videos, here from the town of Earl Park. (Bert Chapman)
Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition:
This agency, known as CFSAN, is responsible for insuring the U.S. food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and properly labeled and for regulating cosmetic products by ensuring they are safe and properly labeled. CFSAN provides historical information about its work including descriptions of the 1906 Food and Drug Act, the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and 1926 Drug Amendments. The Center also provides descriptions of its work in program areas such as color additives, cosmetics, dietary supplements, enforcement actions, foodborne illness, food import and export regulations, pesticides, and seafood. Examples of the wide variety of CFSAN information resources here include Bottled Water: Arsenic Small Entity Compliance Guide (2009), Refrigerated Carrot Juice and Other Refrigerated Low-Acid Juices (2007), Retail Food and Food Service Establishments: Food Security Preventative Measures Guidance (2007), various manuals, and agency annual reports including Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) Performance Report to the President and Congress (FY 1995-present) and Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act (MDUMFA) of 2002 (2003-present). A VIDEO LIBRARY provides Windows and Real Player videos on various topics including Food Safety for Moms-to-Be (2005) and FDA's Role in U.S. Food Safety System (2007). (Bert Chapman).
Australian CSPAN Debuts: This year saw the introduction of the Australian Public Affairs Channel (APAC) which provides live coverage of Australian and sometimes New Zealand political and governmental developments and policy debates. It also provides a number of resources on the Australian governmental and political system including Australia's Parliament. If you find U.S. congressional politics to be to tranquil, I HIGHLY RECOMMEND watching Question Time in Australia's House of Representatives. You can see Australian parliamentarians debate their country's responses to international economic problems, the recently unveiled government budget, and a host of other issues. The Australian Parliament website features a number of informative resources including Hansard (their Congressional Record) debate transcripts from the House of Representatives and Senate, committee hearings and reports, Parliamentary Library reports on public policy issues, and some webcasts including recent Question Times. (Bert Chapman).