The US Government is the largest publisher in the world! It compiles and disseminates information on almost every topic, to help inform policy, determine needs, and spur innovation and growth of the economy.
For sheer depth of data and information, government information will be a rich source of supporting material for your projects.
World government organizations and international NGOs (Non-governmental organizations) often have a more encompassing charge, to determine characterisitcs and needs of humanity and the environment on a global scale.
Science.gov -- Searchable portal of science and technology information produced by the US government.
OECD - (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development) -- NGO collects data and provides policy recommendations for increasing social and economic welfare globally.
United Nations - Orchestrates many multinational programs. Compiles data from member organizations and develops and implements programs to increase security, sustainability, and economic and social development.
Energy Informaton Administration -- Publishes statistics on energy comsumption, forecasts and outlooks, and overviews of different energy sources.
National Renewable Laboratory -- Focsed on alternative energy and energy efficiency research and development programs
ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy) --New initiative funds development and research into high-risk, high-reward technologies.
FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) -- Contains the rules and regulations for generating and distributing energy.
IEA (International Energy Agency): Policy advisory group comprised of 28 mostly European countries. Focuses on energy security, economic development, and environmental protection
Europe's Energy Portal: A European Union analog to the EIA.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): Climate.gov section is a portal for climate change information.
NCAR/UCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research): Major government sponsored research and development center. Lot of technical information and data available.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change): "assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change."
WMO (World Meteorological Organization): United Nations agency: "It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources."
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme): Communicates information on climate events, mitigation strategies, and impacts for different areas around the world. Most information is conveniently packaged.
USDA (US Department of Agriculture): Portal for the department. Publishes statistics on domestic (Economic Research Service, National Agricultural Statistics Service) and international topics (Foreign Agricultural Service).
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): United Nations organization publishes statistics on production and costs, forecasts, threats to food security.
IFPRI (Internationial Food Policy Research Institute)/CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research): Non-governmental organizations heavily involved in research and policy at the global level.
USGS (United State Geological Survey): Water section collects and distributes hydrologic and water-quality information
IWMI (International Water Management Institute)/CGIAR - Non-govermental organization focused on water resources and land management especially in developing countries.